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AAEP Announces 2017 Education Opportunities for Equine Veterinarians and Students

Equine practitioners can invest in practical veterinary knowledge in diverse areas of equine medicine through a slate of continuing education events in 2017, sponsored by the American Association of Equine Practitioners.

The schedule includes two Focus meetings, which present the latest evidence-based knowledge within a specific area of medicine; a 360° meeting that combines lectures and wet labs into an intensive “boot camp” experience; and the 63rd Annual Convention in San Antonio, Texas.

360° Diagnosing, Imaging and Treating the Hind Suspensory and Stifle: Everything You Need or Want to Know: July 9-12 at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colo. Meeting sponsors are Boehringer Ingelheim, Dechra Veterinary Products and Sound

In sport horses, hind suspensory and stifle injuries are common but often underdiagnosed. At the AAEP’s 360° Diagnosing, Imaging and Treating the Hind Suspensory and Stifle, you’ll go from “how to” to “can do” with interactive, small-group training that employs a holistic approach to identifying and resolving lameness in these areas.

 

Focus on Colic/Focus on DentistryJuly 16-18 at the Hyatt Regency in Lexington, Ky. Sponsorship provided by Arenus and KEMIN, platinum level sponsors.

Increase your knowledge and ability to diagnose and manage the No.1 killer of horses at AAEP’s Focus on Colic. This meeting is a three-day exploration into the latest evidence-based knowledge to enable practitioners to assess abdominal pain, employ appropriate techniques and manage the condition medically and surgically.

Focus on Dentistry is an in-depth look at equine dental care—providing practitioners the means to perform a thorough oral exam, recognize oral pathologies, develop treatment plans, perform routine dental care and be introduced to advanced dental therapies.

Focus on Dentistry and Focus on Colic will be held jointly, allowing registrants to attend sessions of both meetings for one registration fee.  

 

Focus on StudentsJuly 15-18 at the Hyatt Regency in Lexington, Ky. Sponsorship provided by Arenus and KEMIN, platinum level sponsors.

Future horse doctors will gain hands on experience through clinical dry labs combined with professional development and career networking. Students will also attend sessions of Focus on Colic and Focus on Dentistry.

 

63rd Annual Convention: Nov. 17-21 at the Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center in San Antonio, Texas

Anchored by more than 100 hours of CE, the world’s largest education event for equine veterinarians returns to the always-popular city of San Antonio to deliver the latest clinical knowledge in veterinary medicine.

 

To view the complete program for the 360° and Focus meetings or to register, visit https://aaep.org/meetings. The program and registration for the annual convention will be available this summer.

 

The American Association of Equine Practitioners, headquartered in Lexington, Ky., was founded in 1954 as a non-profit organization dedicated to the health and welfare of the horse. Currently, AAEP reaches more than 5 million horse owners through its over 9,000 members worldwide and is actively involved in ethics issues, practice management, research and continuing education in the equine veterinary profession and horse industry.

 

Hay Before Grain, or Vice Versa?

By Juliet M. Getty, Ph.D.

 

This is a recurring question that I receive. Which should be fed first – hay or grain?  If you’re feeding correctly, this issue is truly a moot point because the horse should have access to forage in hay and/or pasture 24/7 with no gaps. Therefore, when fed concentrates, the horse’s digestive tract should already have hay flowing through it.

But if you were to feed starchy cereal grains (oats, wheat, barley, etc.) on an empty stomach, the horse would produce more acid than normal, which could potentially lead to ulcers. Furthermore, grains leave the stomach quickly, increasing the risk that they will not be fully digested in the small intestine (especially if large amounts are fed), and end up in the hindgut where starch can be fermented by the resident bacterial population. This can lead to endotoxin-related laminitis.

A better approach is to have hay present in the stomach first. It creates a physical barrier for the grain, making it leave the stomach less quickly. The fiber in the hay mixes with the starch and the whole mass enters the small intestine to be digested. Fiber is not digested until it reaches the hind gut, but its presence slows down the digestion of starch, and obstructs the absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, leading to a less dramatic rise in insulin.

Permission to reprint this article is granted, provided attribution is given to Juliet M. Getty, Ph.D. No editorial changes may be made without her permission. Dr. Getty appreciates being notified of any publication.

Juliet M. Getty, Ph.D. is an independent equine nutritionist with a wide U.S. and international following. Her research-based approach optimizes equine health by aligning physiology and instincts with correct feeding and nutrition practices. Dr. Getty’s goal is to empower the horseperson with the confidence and knowledge to provide the best nutrition for his or her horse’s needs.

Dr. Getty’s fundamental resource book, Feed Your Horse Like a Horse, is now in paperback as well as in hardcover, searchable CD and Kindle versions. All except the Kindle version are available at www.GettyEquineNutrition.com — buy the book there and have it inscribed by the author. Print and Kindle versions are also available at Amazon (www.Amazon.com); find print versions at other online retail bookstores. The seven individual volumes in Dr. Getty’s topic-centered “Spotlight on Equine Nutrition” series are available with special package pricing at her website, and also at Amazon in print and Kindle versions. Dr. Getty’s books make ideal gifts for equestrians!

 

Find a world of useful information for the horseperson at www.GettyEquineNutrition.com: Sign up for Dr. Getty’s informative, free e-newsletter, Forage for Thought; browse her library of reference articles; search her nutrition forum archives; and purchase recordings of her educational teleseminars. Find top-quality supplements, feeders, and other equine-related items, at her online Free Shipping Supplement Store[i]. Reach Dr. Getty directly at gettyequinenutrition@gmail.com.

 

[i] http://horsesupplements.gettyequinenutrition.biz

It’s Not Just You: Antibiotic Resistance A Challenge For Equine Veterinarians

by  | 03.24.2017 | 12:04pm
SMZs

Long hailed as the greatest advance in medicine, antibiotics have become the go-to treatment for nearly every scratch, cough, or fever, whether or not they were caused by bacteria. Many doctors and veterinarians began indiscriminately prescribing antibiotics simply because their patients expected — even demanded — them. This overuse of antibiotics eventually created today’s crisis, in both human and animal medicine: antibiotic resistance.

Dr. Ken Marcella, founder of KLM Equine in Canton, Ga., has been beating the drum for years to alert horsemen to the danger of overuse of antibiotics. Last year, he treated his first case of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a horse. In humans, the disease is widespread, with government agencies requiring hospitals to screen incoming patients for MRSA to curtail its spread.

In equine medicine, researchers and practitioners are doubly concerned about antibiotic resistance because there aren’t that many types of antibiotics in their arsenal. If a disease becomes resistant to the antibiotic of choice for treating it, horsemen — and the horse — are in trouble.

“First-choice drugs out in the field are going to be things like the sulfas — Trimethoprim [SMZ] or Uniprim are still the #1 deal,” Marcella said. “Because [sulfa] is generally broad-spectrum, and it is real simple for the client to administer, I think it’s probably overused. So we try to hold off on that.”

Gimme some SMZs, Doc

Horsemen have become accustomed to stopping at the veterinary clinic to pick up a supply of antibiotics, either for a special case or just to have on hand. Marcella said his clinic has had a long-standing policy not to dispense antibiotics unless he has examined the horse. Even then, he may choose to allow the horse’s immune system to do the work.

“Say a horse presents with just a runny nose,” Marcella said. “A lot of times, if the horse is eating and drinking and its temperature and physical exam are normal, we’ll hold off on any sort of treatment.”

He’ll follow up with the owners to assure the horse is recovering and if it isn’t, he’ll do lab work to determine which antibiotic is effective against that particular bacteria.

“It really doesn’t help in terms of resistance if you go ahead and treat with the wrong antibiotics for 10 days and then find out it’s not working,” he said.

Marcella may turn to stronger antibiotics — penicillin, gentamicin, enrofloxacin, or the tetracyclines — but only after blood work or cultures indicate their need.

What is the risk?

Risk management Is the key factor in deciding if and when to treat with antibiotics. Some horses may be healthy enough to fight the bacteria on their own, while others may be more at risk because of their age and overall health.

Another consideration is the disease itself.

“If I think it’s a disease that if I wait and I’m wrong, the horse is going to have more of a problem, then I’m more likely to go ahead and start antibiotics if I think they are needed,” Marcella said. “Or if I go ahead and do [blood work] and there’s a good chance of an infection somewhere, I’m going to put the horse on antibiotics, even if I can’t find the source to culture it.”

Foal Pneumonia

foalRhodococcal pneumonia in foals is a deadly disease that begins as small focal points of infection in the lungs that eventually become abscesses. This insidious pneumonia infects the foal in the first days of life but does not show symptoms until the advanced stage months later, a point where little can be done to save its life. In the early stages, foals continue to nurse normally, and they even may appear bright and healthy.

Researchers have developed a way to identify and monitor lesions in the foal’s lungs using ultrasound. The lesions are graded on a scale of zero to 10. A companion study found that smaller lesions (less than Grade 2) are able to resolve without medical intervention. But with such a serious disease, are farms willing to take that risk?

Three Chimneys Farm routinely ultrasounds its foals’ lungs for R. equi, but the size of a lesion is not the only factor farm manager Chris Baker said they use to decide if a foal should be treated.

“Clinical signs, ultrasound, and blood work — those three criteria are what we rely on in determining our choice whether to treat,” Baker said. “We’ll follow those along, but we only treat when we feel we have an active infection that needs to be treated, not an inflammatory [condition] or a low-grade infection process that the foal is dealing with on its own.”

Alternatives

For serious infections, ranging from wounds to respiratory disease, Marcella prefers to use Excede, an antibiotic with effects lasting four days.

“If you get a puncture wound or a respiratory issue, four days of Excede and then re-evaluation is probably a better way to go,” Marcella said.

Researchers also are looking to natural cures as a way to fight antibiotic resistance. Natural honey has shown promising results. A Swedish study found the beneficial lactic-acid bacteria in a bee’s stomach is effective in treating MRSA, non-healing wounds, and other antibiotic-resistant diseases. Commercial honey does not contain the lactic-acid bacteria; the source must be fresh raw honey.

Researchers in the United States also are looking into the antibiotic properties of the metal gallium maltolate to treat wounds and Rhodococcal pneumonia.

“The biggest thing from us out in the field is not to jump on antibiotics for no particular reason,” Marcella said.

4 Proactive Steps to a Healthy Horse

A veterinary-directed wellness plan is an easy way to care for your horse

 

PLYMOUTH, MA – March 21, 2017 – At SmartPak, our mission is to support healthy horses and happy riders. One of the best ways you can help keep your horse healthy is by partnering with your veterinarian to develop an annual wellness program. With spring just around the corner, now is a great time to start thinking about a wellness plan for your horse.

Your veterinarian is the best source of advice on what is right for your individual horse, and will take into account factors such as age, workload, and any existing health conditions. “Working with your veterinarian is important to help spot problems early and keep your horse healthy,” said Dr. Scott Spaulding of Badger Veterinary Hospital, Janesville, Wisconsin. “A well-rounded wellness program includes four key areas to help your veterinarian evaluate your horse’s health: annual physical exam, dental exam, vaccinations, and deworming.”

 

Annual Physical Exam

During an annual physical exam, the veterinarian starts with a thorough visual inspection of the horse, and evaluates basic measures of health such as temperature, pulse, and respiration. Next, the veterinarian will listen to the lungs, evaluate skin and coat health, and discuss any specific concerns. The physical exam is also a great time for your vet to evaluate your horse’s Body Condition Score and discuss the horse’s nutrition program, including grain and hay. “For older horses,” said Dr. Lydia Gray, SmartPak’s Staff Veterinarian/Medical Director, “more frequent exams that include specific tests may be recommended, such as bloodwork to rule out conditions like Pituitary Pars Intermedia Dysfunction, also known as Cushing’s Disease.”

 

Annual Dental Exam

Having your veterinarian perform an annual dental exam is equally important. Regular dental care is vital for maintaining your horse’s health, especially in senior horses or those prone to dental issues. Dental problems can lead to weight loss, decreased performance, and sometimes unwanted behavior. Having your horse’s mouth and teeth checked at least once per year is a smart way to spot issues early and take care of them before they cause problems.

 

Annual Vaccinations

Annual vaccinations are essential for the health of the horse and to help prevent disease outbreaks. While the American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP) core vaccine recommendations are Eastern/Western equine encephalitis, tetanus, West Nile virus, and rabies, it is important to remember to work with your veterinarian to determine a vaccination plan that is optimal for your horse based on your geography and other individual risk factors.

 

Deworming

Having your horse on a deworming plan is also an important part of responsible horse ownership. Your veterinarian is the best resource to develop a deworming program designed specifically for your horse and property. “In order to have an effective parasite control strategy,” said Dr. Gray, “it’s important to work with your veterinarian to create a deworming plan that includes fecal testing and targeted deworming based on those results.”

 

Horses that receive all of these essential services each year are not only staying healthier, they are also meeting all of the Annual Wellness Requirements for ColiCare, SmartPak’s free colic surgery reimbursement program. In addition to the wellness services performed by your veterinarian, simply feed any ColiCare eligible supplement in SmartPaks™ and you could be eligible for up to $7,500 of colic surgery reimbursement. SmartPak recently made it easier than ever to enroll in SmartPak by allowing horse owners to designate an agent, such as a trainer or lessee, to apply for ColiCare on their behalf. Learn more at www.SmartPak.com/ColiCare.

 

 

About SmartPak

From the feed room to the tack room, SmartPak offers innovative solutions to help riders take great care of their horses. SmartPak was founded in 1999 with the introduction of the patented SmartPak supplement feeding system. The revolutionary, daily dose SmartPaks are custom-made for your horse, individually labeled and sealed for freshness. With the success of this simple and convenient feeding system, SmartPak has continued to expand its offering of quality products, including its own line of more than 55 supplement formulas called SmartSupplements, and a wide variety of tack, equipment, and supplies. The company has grown rapidly each year and is now the largest retailer of equestrian products in the United States. SmartPak’s success has been powered by a passion for delivering an unbeatable customer experience, and the company has been recognized with a Bizrate Circle of Excellence award seven years in a row, as well as receiving an “Elite” rating from STELLAService. A nine-time Inc. 500/5000 honoree, SmartPak is the only equine company ever named to the Inc. 500 list.

The Elite Program, Inc. to Present Two April Courses

Subject: Two important classes in April 2017; 

What/When/Where: 

Trainers Exam Prep Class at Lone Star Park April 5-7
Basic Grooming Workforce Preparation, Kenny McPeek’s Magdalena Farm, Lexington, KY April 17-21

Information: www.groomelite.com; www.purplepowerracing.com

The Elite Program, Inc. through it’s Groom Elite™ programming will present two important classes in April to be taught by National lead instructor and Executive Director, C. Reid McLellan, PhD.  McLellan  will conduct his popular Trainers’ Exam Prep Class at Lone Star Park for a 17th time from April 5-7. Two weeks later, April 17-21, “Dr. Mac” will be lead instructor for an inaugural Basic Grooming 099, a workforce preparation class at Magdalena Farms in Lexington, Ky.

 

Lone Star Park Trainers Exam Prep Class

The Lone Star Park Trainers Exam Prep Class will be held in the Chaplain’s classroom in the Lone Star Park racing office for three days immediately following the Texas Thoroughbred Associations two-year old in training sale on April 4. Tuition is $350 and participants that register early and pay tuition before March 24th pay a discounted rate of $299.

This will be the 17th class McLellan has taught at Lone Star Park. Over 120 have participated in this class including Texas based trainer Janine Winslow, a member of the fist Lone Star Park class in 1998. Winslow saddled winners at Delta Downs and Sam Houston in February 2017. McLellan, has instructed trainers since he established an award winning equine program at Louisiana Tech University in the 1980’s. Dr. Mac is an engaging speaker who spices up otherwise dull material with personal experiences and discussion of rule changes that effect those desiring to become trainers. Information and registration online at www.groomelite.com or www.purplepowerracing.com.

 

Basic Grooming 099

Basic Grooming 099 is a 16-hour hands on class designed for people with limited (or no) horse experience who would like to take advantage of the many job openings in the Equine Industry. Class will  be held at Kenny McPeek’s Magdalena Farms on Russell Cave Road in Lexington. McPeek and others will participate as their schedules allow. “I’ll be there every  day”, McPeek tweeted (@Kenny McPeek.}

Class is being held during the Keeneland meeting  and participants will have an opportunity to attend the races and see grooms and hotwalkers in action Wednesday or Thursday.

Participants will learn how to work safely with horses, starting with approaching safely, haltering and leading. The four day (4 hours per day) class will include daily hands on practice. Participants will demonstrate on Friday what they have learned. Each person completing the course that is interested in applying for a job in the equine industry, will be evaluated and counseled as to their readiness to work with horses. In addition, contact information of trainers and farms with job openings will be provided. Elite Program staff will assist participants in finding jobs compatible with their skill level and confidence. In addition to McPeek’s Magdalena Farm, Basic Grooming 099 is sponsored in part by The Jockey Club, TOBA (though its Thoroughbred Charities of America), NTRA and the Race for Education. As a result, tuition for this class will be only $99. Class size is limited to the first 20 signing up and paying a $25 deposit to hold a spot. The remaining $74 is due April 14th . Anyone out of work and in need of a job can register and request assistance with tuition. “If a person wants to work in our equine industry we want to provide them the training necessary for them to be qualified to apply for those jobs”, McLellan stated.

A waiting list will be established if class is over subscribed. Those interested are encouraged to go to  www.groomelite.com and sign up.  Anyone without internet access is invited to call 859-252-8648 (Race for Education) or Dr. McLellan at 859-321-4377 and sign up over the phone.

The Elite Program, Inc. is a 501(C)3 non-profit that provides equine education classes through it’s Groom Elite™ curriculum.  With its initial primary mission (in 2001) to provide education to grooms and hotwalkers or Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse Racehorses, Groom Elite continually adapts and updates it’s programming that now includes courses for grooms and owners of OTTB show horses and welcomes owners and grooms of any breed. One of it’s more noteable programs is its Second Chances Groom Elite curriculum taught in five adult correctional facilities in partnership with the Thoroughbred Retirement Foundation and it’s local affiliates in which participants learn life lessons while developing an employable skill working with retired racehorses.

How to Perform CPR on a Newborn Foal

 

How to Perform CPR on a Newborn FoalBegin administering chest compressions immediately to any foal born not breathing and without a heartbeat. Photo: SallyAnne L. Ness, DVM, Dipl. ACVIM

It’s bad news when a foal enters the world without taking a breath. But there’s some good news: Many foals born with beating heart and pulse, but who fail to breathe, can be revived via cardiopulmonary resuscitation (more commonly known as CPR). And there’s more good news: Both owners and veterinarians can perform CPR on a foal in need. The key is to be prepared in advance and not to wait until it’s too late to learn this potentially life-saving skill.

To that end, SallyAnne Ness, DVM, Dipl. ACVIM, reviewed how to perform CPR on newborn foals at the 2015 American Association of Equine Practitioners’ Convention, held Dec. 5-9 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Ness is an internal medicine specialist at Cornell University’s College of Veterinary Medicine, in Ithaca, New York.

Be Prepared

Ness said many veterinary clinics keep portable neonatal crash kits prepared and handy. These kits should contain the products needed to deliver life-saving oxygen to foals that fail to breath upon delivery.

She also recommended that veterinarians have on hand the injectable medications that can aid resuscitation when a foal’s heart rate gets too low or stops beating—epinephrine (adrenaline) and vasopressin (a hormone that raises blood pressure and helps maintain blood flow to the heart and brain). She also suggested printing a dosing chart ahead of time to prevent errors if medications are drawn up and administered in a hurry.

When the Foal Arrives

Ness said veterinarians and foaling attendants should rapidly assess any foal that fails to move and/or breathe upon delivery. She recommended:

  • Placing him in a sternal position (on his abdomen with tucked-under legs) and clearing the airways;
  • Identifying any rib fractures and/or congenital deficits;
  • Auscultating (listening with a stethoscope) the lungs and heart; a healthy foal’s respiration rate should be 20 to 40 breaths per minute and pulse should be 60 to 80 beats per minute, she said;
  • Palpating for pulses; and
  • Clamping the umbilicus.

This assessment should take less than a minute. She suggested giving several people specific jobs—one team leader, one to listen to the heart and lungs, etc. She also said attendants should be prepared well in advance for high-risk pregnancies or foalings.

The foaling team’s job is easy if the neonate’s heart is beating and he’s breathing properly. If he’s not breathing, however, it’s time for them to begin attempting resuscitation.

First, rub and dry the foal, she said. Sometimes tactile stimulation helps prompt the foal to breathe. Poking the muzzle and nostrils with straw can also incite a reflex that prompts the foal to take a breath. If he isn’t breathing after 10 to 15 seconds, he’ll need ventilation.

Ness said intubation is the easiest option and can be approached either through the foal’s nasal passages or his mouth. In this instance, the veterinarian will extend the foal’s neck and pass an endotracheal tube into the trachea. Then, he or she will inflate a cuff to seal the tube within the trachea and connect an Ambu Bag, which allows the veterinarian to administer breaths to the foal.

Alternatively, veterinarians and foaling attendants can use a non-intubated approach. Ness said in this case, the attendant can use a mouth-to-nose approach. To do this, Ness instructed, “You block the lower nostril (the one closest to the ground as the foal lies) with your hand and blow into the upper nostril.” Another non-intubated option is a mask with a self-inflating air pump made specifically for foals. This last option is probably the easiest and safest choice for foaling attendants and nonveterinarians, she added.

Regardless of which option the veterinarian or attendant uses, Ness said the goal is to apply 10 breaths per minute, holding the first inspiration for three to five seconds and then using quick, short breaths after that. She recommended reassessing the foal after 30 to 60 seconds.

Handling Foals Without a Heartbeat

“A foal born not breathing and without a heartbeat for any length of time is unlikely to respond to CPR,” Ness said. “But you have nothing to lose doing CPR on a dead foal. It’s doing something instead of nothing. Some can come back if the arrest began right at birth.”

She recommended beginning chest compressions immediately. The veterinarian should maintain a straight back and locked elbows and place one hand on the other on the widest part of the foal’s chest wall. Then, using his back and core muscles, begin applying 100 to 120 compressions per minute, aiming to compress the chest by one-third with each compressions. Ness noted that an easy way to get an appropriate compression rhythm is by mentally singing Stayin’ Alive by the Bee Gees and compressing along with the beat. Ironically, she laughed, Another One Bites The Dust by Queen has a similar beat and could also be used to achieve an appropriate compression rhythm. She recommended having the foaling team take turns performing compressions in two-minute cycles to prevent fatigue.

Ness said the foal should receive 30 compressions for every two breaths. If the animal is intubated, she said the compressor doesn’t need to stop. If he’s not intubated, the compressor should stop every 30 seconds so breaths can be administered. Additionally, veterinarians can administer epinephrine every four minutes to aid in revival, she said.

When to Stop

Ness recommended continuing CPR until the foal is breathing on his own and has a heart rate over 60 beats per minute. She recommended that foals that do respond positively should still be monitored closely for relapse.

She noted that if a foal fails to respond after 15 minutes, success is unlikely.

Take-Home Message

Knowing CPR and being prepared in advance to administer it to foals in need is essential for both veterinarians and foaling attendants.

“CPR is a rewarding and life-saving procedure that can result in a positive outcome when delivered quickly and with proper technique,” Ness relayed.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Erica Larson, News Editor

Erica Larson, news editor, holds a degree in journalism with an external specialty in equine science from Michigan State University in East Lansing. A Massachusetts native, she grew up in the saddle and has dabbled in a variety of disciplines including foxhunting, saddle seat, and mounted games. Currently, Erica competes in eventing with her OTTB, Dorado.

Myth: A Shiny Horse is a Healthy Horse

By Juliet M. Getty, Ph.D.

 

Fat from any source will make your horse shiny. A fatty substance called sebum, secreted from the sebaceous glands in your horse’s skin, increases when the diet is higher in fat. It coats the hair, making it reflect the sun’s rays. Any fat will do; the type of dietary fat doesn’t matter when it comes to making the hair coat shine. But it sure does matter when it comes to your horse’s health.

 

The converse is true – A healthy horse is a shiny horse…

As long as he’s shiny for the right reason – because you are feeding the right type of fat! With so many feeds and supplements available, where do you start?

 

Start with what comes naturally

Fresh grass contains 2-3% unsaturated fat consisting of a variety of fatty acids that vary in their chemical profile. There are two specific essential fatty acids that the horse’s body cannot produce and therefore must be in his diet: The omega 3 known as alpha linolenic acid (ALA), and the omega 6 known as linoleic acid. Grasses contain both of these in a 4:1 ratio of ALA to linoleic acid.

Most commercially prepared horse diets, however, have an inverted ratio of these two fatty acids because high linoleic acid fat sources such as soybean and corn oils are added to boost the fat concentration. When the omega 6 content exceeds the omega 3 content, you are asking for trouble.

 

Linoleic acid leads to inflammation

While some linoleic acid is important, too much can exacerbate your horse’s inflammatory response. Horses who are in training, working, or performing produce inflammation in their joints and muscles that can worsen when high amounts of linoleic acid are present. The aging joints of older horses are more painful when this omega 6 fatty acid is fed in large amounts. And inflammation leads to oxidative stress, which can damage all tissues throughout the body.[i]

 

ALA reduces inflammation

 Omega 3s block the formation of inflammatory molecules that are readily formed from omega 6s. Take a close look at the fat sources you are feeding to confirm that enough omega 3s are in the diet.  Read the ingredients and note the concentrations. Manufacturers of products that are high in soybean oil, for example, will often tout that the product contains omega 3s. This is true, but misleading. Soybean oil does contain about 7% omega 3s. But what they don’t tell you is that 50% of the fatty acids in soybean oil are from linoleic acid (omega 6).

 

The table below provides a better understanding of oils and oily feeds:

 

 

Approximate Fatty Acid Percentage in Oils and Oily Feeds

 

Oils and oily portion of feeds Saturated  Monounsaturated (Omega 9)[ii] Linoleic Acid (Omega 6) Alpha Linolenic Acid (Omega 3)[iii]

 

Camelina oil 13 19 16 38
Canola oil 7 54 30 7
Chia Seeds 10 7 19 55
Coconut oil[iv] 91             6 3 0
Corn oil 17 24 59 0
Flaxseeds  9 19 14 58
Hempseed oil[v] 10 12 55 18
Olive oil 16 75 8 1
Rice bran 17 48 35 1
Sunflower seeds 12 16 71 1
Soybean oil 15 26 50 7
Wheat germ 18 25 50 5

 

Hay has virtually no fatty acid content

Once fresh grass is cut, dried and stored, the naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acids are destroyed by oxygen. If hay is the predominant forage source for your horse, it is critical that you add a fat source that offers more omega 3s than omega 6s. Ground flaxseed or chia seeds are best for omega 3s. When supplementing, limit the amount fed to no more than ½ cup ground flaxseed or ¼ cup chia per 400 lbs of body weight (120 ml per 180 kg of body weight). The dosage for flaxseed oil should be 1.5 tablespoons per 400 lbs of body weight (22.5 ml per 180 kg body weight).

 

Not all equines are the same

Equines such as ponies, minis, donkeys, and mules cannot tolerate as much fat as horses. They require some fat, but generally 1/3 to 1/2 the amount given to horses, proportionate to their weight.

 

Bottom line

Read the ingredient label on any feed or supplement designed to add more fat to your horse’s diet. The ingredients may be imbalanced. While it will make your horse shine, it may do nothing to contribute to overall health and worse, it may actually increase inflammation.

 

 

Juliet M. Getty, Ph.D. is an independent equine nutritionist with a wide U.S. and international following. Her research-based approach optimizes equine health by aligning physiology and instincts with correct feeding and nutrition practices. Dr. Getty’s goal is to empower the horseperson with the confidence and knowledge to provide the best nutrition for his or her horse’s needs.

 

Dr. Getty’s fundamental resource book, Feed Your Horse Like a Horse, is now in paperback as well as in hardcover, searchable CD and Kindle versions. All except the Kindle version are available at www.GettyEquineNutrition.com— buy the book there and have it inscribed by the author. Print and Kindle versions are also available at Amazon (www.Amazon.com); find print versions at other online retail bookstores. The seven individual volumes in Dr. Getty’s topic-centered “Spotlight on Equine Nutrition” series are available with special package pricing at her website, and also at Amazon in print and Kindle versions. Dr. Getty’s books make ideal gifts for equestrians!

 

Find a world of useful information for the horseperson at www.GettyEquineNutrition.com: Sign up for Dr. Getty’s informative, free e-newsletter, Forage for Thought; browse her library of reference articles; search her nutrition forum archives; and purchase recordings of her educational teleseminars. Find top-quality supplements, feeders, and other equine-related items, at her online Free Shipping Supplement Store[vi]. Reach Dr. Getty directly at gettyequinenutrition@gmail.com.

 

[i] There is another omega 6 that is not as prevalent in the horse’s diet, known as gamma linolenic acid (GLA). GLA is receiving attention for horses’ diets because unlike linoleic acid, GLA actually reduces inflammation. GLA is found in significant quantities in hempseed oil (see note v below), and is also found in evening primrose oil and spirulina.

[ii] Omega 9s are another classification of fatty acids that do not promote inflammation and may protect the heart and blood vessels.

[iii] Fish oils are also high in omega 3s. However, ALA from plants is converted to the longer chain omega 3s found in fish oils.

[iv] Coconut oil is popular, but it has no omega 3s. Therefore, if you feed this as your only source of fat, your horse will become deficient in this essential fatty acid. He’ll be very shiny, but he will be unhealthy. Coconut oil is more than 90% saturated, with a smidgen of linoleic acid. The saturated fatty acids exist mostly as medium chain triglycerides (MCT), which is controversial because these types of fatty acids do not exist in grasses. However, MCT are metabolized differently from saturated fats and may be beneficial for metabolically challenged horses.

[v] Hempseed oil also contain approximately 2-4% Gamma Linolenic Acid, a beneficial omega 6 fatty acid known to reduce inflammation.

[vi] http://horsesupplements.gettyequinenutrition.biz

 

 

Permission to reprint this article is granted, provided attribution is given to Juliet M. Getty, Ph.D. No editorial changes may be made without her permission. Dr. Getty appreciates being notified of any publication.

 

Study Aims to Improve Safety of Horse Farm Workers

Study Aims to Improve Safety of Horse Farm Workers,

Results in Free Bilingual Safety Materials

Using direct input from horse farm employees, managers, and owners, a group of researchers based at the University of Maryland, Baltimore and the University of Kentucky College of Public Health has put together a set of bilingual safety training materials* designed to equip horse farm managers and workers with information needed to stay safe on the job.

The Thoroughbred Worker Health and Safety Study was a five-year research project aimed to improve the occupational safety and health of thoroughbred farm workers. The study was co-led by Jennifer Swanberg, PhD, professor, University of Maryland School of Social Work, and Jess Miller Clouser, MPH, research associate, the University of Kentucky College of Public Health. The project was funded by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as part of the University of Kentucky Southeast Center for Agricultural Health and Injury Prevention.

The research consisted of three phases, all of which were informed and guided by industry and community advisory councils:

  • 32 surveys and 26 in-depth interviews were conducted with farm owners, managers, and human resource personnel about the work environment and context of injuries and illnesses experienced by workers;
  • community-based surveys were conducted with 225 Latino thoroughbred farm workers about their experiences of the work environment and occupational injury and illness; and
  • an industry and community-engaged process was utilized to create educational materials based on study data to provide to farms and workers.

The research team is now releasing the three main educational materials resulting from this research. These materials are available on the project’s website at http://www.workersafetyandhealth.com/information-for-managers/

The series of 12 bilingual, graphic safety illustrations may be used as a training booklet or safety posters and aims to help educate both English and Spanish-speaking workers about safety procedures on thoroughbred farms and provide a shared language of safety. To create the content of the illustrations, the research team convened a working group of eight industry representatives including farm managers from small, medium, and large thoroughbred farms; workers’ compensation and insurance representatives; human resource personnel; and communications associates. Iterative feedback was then obtained from more than 80 farm managers, safety professionals and Latino thoroughbred workers.

safety-poster

Randy Gilbert, the farm manager at Shawnee Farm in Harrodsburg, Ky., former president of the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers’ Club, and a member of the project’s Industry Advisory Council, was a participant in the working group that drafted the safety illustrations.

“At Shawnee Farm every year we have guys that come on visas to work with the horses and maintenance and communication is key for safety. These safety posters will definitely help with communication,” said Gilbert.

Laurette Durick, human resources manager at Godolphin, a global thoroughbred breeding and horse racing team in the United Arab Emirates, also served on both the project’s industry advisory council and working group for the safety illustrations.

“These safety posters and booklets are fantastic. This is a first of its kind, as I have never seen anything like this for horse handling and the equine industry,” said Durick.

Tom Evans, owner and manager of Trackside Farm, in Versailles, Ky., and a member of the safety illustration working group added, “I would wager that my employees are 100 times more likely to study an illustration versus read text.  I think the illustrations provoke thought and show our employees that somebody cares about their safety.”

In the in-depth interviews conducted with thoroughbred farm representatives, participants described promising practices they employed to help improve employee safety and well-being, especially among non-English speaking workers. The From the Field report details those practices as a vehicle for farms to learn from one another.

Participating farms often stated that they wanted to learn what the study’s findings were. Main findings have been summarized in a series of 10 research briefs that are organized by topic area (e.g., injuries, respiratory symptoms, communication, musculoskeletal discomfort) and are available at http://www.workersafetyandhealth.com/issue-briefs/.

 

All materials are accessible for free on the project website at www.workersafetyandhealth.com. As funding permits, printed copies of the materials may also become available.  For additional information or to be added to a wait list for printed materials, please contact Jennifer Swanberg, jswanberg@ssw.umaryland.edu.

 

*While these materials were created with and for the thoroughbred industry, they may be relevant to other occupational or recreational groups. The researchers provide permission for use of the materials in other disciplines, but do not imply that the procedures depicted are universally applicable to all industries or contexts.

 

How to Predict When a Mare Will Foal

How to Predict When a Mare Will Foal Most deliveries transpire smoothly with no ill effects. But when a problem does occur—even a simple issue such as an easily correctable dystocia (difficult birth)—things can go south rapidly.

For some breeders, the waiting game starts as soon as the mare is inseminated. For others, it starts when she’s confirmed in foal. Still for others, it starts when she her belly grows large. Whenever that waiting game starts, all breeders want to know: When will my mare foal?

Igor Canisso, DVM, MSc, PhD, Dipl. ACT, Dipl. ECAR, previously of the University of Kentucky Gluck Equine Research Center and now an assistant professor of equine theriogenology at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine, offered some tips on how to predict when a mare will foal.

Most deliveries transpire smoothly with no ill effects. But when a problem does occur—even a simple issue such as an easily correctable dystocia (difficult birth)—things can go south rapidly, Canisso said. Additionally, “in certain situations, we don’t want let the foal suckle on its dam due to risk of developing a condition such as neonatal isoerythrolysis,” or acute hemolytic anemia caused by ingesting antibodies in the mare’s colostrum and milk that are directed against the neonate’s red blood cells, he said.

“That’s why each foaling should be attended,” he explained. “If there is a simple problem, it can easily be corrected by an experienced foaling attendant. Or, if there is a more serious condition, the mare can be referred to a clinic, or a veterinarian can be called to check the mare.

“Usually, it is best not to wait (to call the veterinarian), as after 30 minutes from ‘water break,’ every 10-minute delay in foaling decreases the foal’s survival rate by 10%,” Canisso said.

And because the vast majority of foalings take place between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m., he said, it’s important to know when you might want to start brewing coffee for overnight foal watches.

Here are some of the options owners and veterinarians can use to predict when a mare will foal.

Estimated Foaling Date—The average equine gestation length is between 335 and 345 days. So you should be able to easily calculate your mare’s estimated foaling date if you know when she was bred. For example, if your mare was bred on Feb. 10 and has an average gestation, you can tentatively expect a foal between Jan. 12 and Jan. 22 of the following year. Canisso cautioned, however, that gestation length varies substantially between breeds, time of the year (it’s usually longer when the mare is due to foal in the late winter and early spring), and individual mares, so use this method only as a guide.

If you’re unsure of when your mare was bred, your veterinarian can perform an ultrasound exam to estimate the mare’s stage of pregnancy and calculate an estimated foaling date.

Physical Signs—As the mare’s due date approaches, start watching for physical signs indicating she’s preparing to foal, including:

  • Tailhead relaxation—Canisso noted this is harder to identify in overweight, heavily muscled, or maiden mares;
  • Vulva relaxation and elongation—Canisso cautioned that some older mares might have very pronounced vulvar relaxation well before foaling while others mares will show minimal or no appreciable changes, so don’t rely solely on this factor to predict foaling; and
  • Mammary gland enlargement—Canisso said most mares’ mammary glands will begin getting larger about a month before their due date, with the most notable changes in the last two weeks prior to foaling. Maiden mares might not show substantial udder enlargement until close to parturition, he said.

Canisso cautioned that maiden mares might not display the same physical signs as seasoned broodmares.

Mammary Gland Secretions—For the last three decades many veterinarians and breeders have used mares’ mammary gland secretion electrolyte levels to predict foaling. In the normal mare, the mammary gland secretion’s calcium and potassium levels rise while sodium decreases closer to foaling. However, measuring these electrolytes to predict foaling requires a machine to analyze the levels and serial measurements. Canisso said that, commonly, breeders and veterinarians have submitted these electrolyte samples to a laboratory, which can be expensive and prohibit the practice’s use for mares not located close to a laboratory–essentially, most mares in most regions.

Because calcium is the most reliable and commonly used electrolyte, commercial kits are now available for breeders to use to estimate the mammary secretions’ calcium carbonate content and, thus, help predict when the mare will or will not foal. The commercial calcium carbonate test’s limitations include the costs and required dilutions to obtain an accurate reading, said Canisso.

Recently, Canisso and colleagues tested another method by which to predict foaling using mammary gland secretions. This time, however, they measured the secretions’ pH levels. Using commercially available pH test strips, owners can test the mammary gland secretions once daily; when the normally slightly basic secretions (pH> 8) drop to below 7 on the pH scale, the mare will likely foal within 24 hours, Canisso said. In his recent study, 11 of 14 mares foaled within 24 hours when their mammary gland secretion pH levels were 7 or lower; the remaining three study mares foaled without significant pH changes, he said.

In the same study, Canisso and colleagues compared the secretions’ pH levels with their calcium, sodium, and potassium concentrations. They found that the pH measurements were equally as effective as electrolyte measurements at predicting foaling, suggesting that pH can replace electrolyte measurements, he said. Canisso also noted that measuring pH is advantageous over electrolytes because the tests cost less; are more practical, as no dilutions are needed to determine pH; and require only a small drop of secretion to complete—this is especially beneficial for maiden mares, he said, as many maiden mares have a very small amount of pre-foaling mammary gland secretions, making electrolyte measurement very difficult.

Electronic Devices—Next, Canisso described some electronic devices breeders can use to alert them to impending foaling:

  • The Foal-Alert is a magnetic device that a veterinarian sews into the mare’s vulva. When the magnets are separated as the vulva expands during foaling, an alert is sent to a pager or cell phone, or an alarm sounds in the barn. Canisso said while this device can be used successfully, it can also cause many false alarms. Additionally, the alarm might not sound if the foal is malpositioned in the uterus or if its feet don’t penetrate the mare’s vulva.
  • The Breeders’ Alert is a position-monitoring device shaped like a small box that attaches to the mare’s halter and sounds an alarm when it detects that the mare is in lateral recumbency (the position in which they deliver a foal) for more than 15 seconds. Like the Foal-Alert, Canisso said, this device causes a lot of false alarms.
  • The last device Canisso described is the Birth Alarm. Like the Breeders’ Alert, the Birth Alarm monitors a mare’s position; however this device is located on a surcingle. When the mare lies down for more than about 8 seconds, an alert is sent to the individual monitoring the mare. As with the other two devices, Canisso said this can throw false positives, and it might be cost-prohibitive for some breeders.

Video Monitoring Systems—Finally, Canisso noted that many breeders and veterinarians employ video monitoring systems that allow them to keep an eye on the mare for signs of foaling from afar.

So which method should breeders select? Canisso said many breeders opt for a combination of the available options to give themselves the best chance to accurately predict when a mare will foal.

“Since there isn’t a single and perfect way to predict foaling in all mares, the best approach is to combine different strategies to maximize the results,” he said.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Erica Larson, News Editor

Erica Larson, news editor, holds a degree in journalism with an external specialty in equine science from Michigan State University in East Lansing. A Massachusetts native, she grew up in the saddle and has dabbled in a variety of disciplines including foxhunting, saddle seat, and mounted games. Currently, Erica competes in eventing with her OTTB, Dorado.

Think Before You Reach for an NSAID for Your Horse

Why You Should Consider Reaching Out to Your Veterinarian Before Reaching for an NSAID.
Equine lameness seems to happen at the most inopportune times, and it’s one of the main reasons for removing a horse from athletic activity. When lameness appears, horse owners are often quick to reach for a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). In fact, a survey found 82 percent of horse owners use NSAIDs without consulting their veterinarian.1 But that may not be the smart move.

“It’s important for horse owners to consult their veterinarian before giving an NSAID,” says Hoyt Cheramie, DVM, MS, Senior Manager, Merial Large Animal Veterinary Services. “The best option – and the shortest path back to soundness – may be a medication, treatment or protocol the horse owner hasn’t considered.”

“In addition, no medication is without risks,” says Cheramie. “Your veterinarian is the best person to help you monitor your horse’s health for potential side effects or lack of efficacy. Keeping your veterinarian involved, even if it’s just informing them of your treatment decision, will provide them with important information in the future if the issue comes up again.”

Your equine veterinarian considers many factors before prescribing any treatment, including an NSAID:

  • What is the horse’s history?
  • Is the diagnosis a simple lameness or could it be something else?
  • What treatment options are available?
  • What is the horse owner’s budget and resources?

If your veterinarian does recommend an NSAID, they’ll take into consideration:

  • Has this horse been given this medication before?
  • What dosage should the horse receive, and what is the best route of administration?
  • What are the potential side effects of the treatment or medication?

The decision-making process can be complex, which is why most equine NSAIDs are available only with a prescription. If for some reason your horse does have a reaction or fails to improve, ensuring your veterinarian is fully aware of the situation will be a benefit.

Regardless of discipline, when your horse is lame, it can impact not only your short-term competitive goals but also your horse’s long-term health. So, before you reach for that old tube or bottle, talk to your veterinarian about all of your options to help effectively manage lameness, pain and inflammation in your horse.

1Andrews F, McConnico R. Cause for concern: Evidence that therapeutic dosing of nonselective NSAIDs contributes to gastrointestinal injury. Equine Vet Education. 2009;21(12):663-664.
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