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Ask Your Veterinarian: Recovery Time After Long Hauls

by | 05.02.2018 | 11:40am

Kentucky Derby Champion Nyquist is escorted off the van by groom Elias Anaya after arriving at Monmouth Park July 27 ahead of the Haskell

QUESTION: When a horse ships long distances to race, why do some lose so much weight…and how long does it take them to recover fully?

DR. PETER MORRESEY: Transportation causes stress in horses. Many things are done to minimize this, but stress cannot be eliminated completely and like people, horses respond individually. Many studies have been performed to assess metabolic and physical changes in transported horses.

During transport, heart and respiratory rates increase. The stress hormone cortisol is released, promoting breakdown of body tissue and energy stores. The levels of other hormones involved in metabolism (e.g. thyroid hormone) are also altered.

Transportation also results in the horse constantly needing to preserve balance, requiring energy from his muscles. This is most needed during acceleration and deceleration of the transport vehicle, so the skill of the driver also affects body condition.

All of these alterations to the daily needs of the horse over and above maintenance consume energy. In addition to this, exposure to new horses and novel environments provide an infectious challenge; this, too, has an energy cost to defend against.

During transportation, horses vary in their water and food intake. If the horse eats and drinks adequately, losses will be comparatively small and easily made up. When the horse cannot or will not eat enough due to circumstance or personality, these reductions compound the loss of energy stores and body condition (muscle, fat).

Recovery time varies between individuals. Time taken to recoup losses depends upon the ability of the horse to resume intake adequate to replace losses and meet ongoing needs. For some horses this is not difficult and they rapidly adjust with minimal outward signs. For others, situations of stress resulting from a new environment, altered social setting, and variations in the food offered due to different hay/concentrates and water source (which can greatly affect taste) mean many days may be needed to regain body condition and energy stores depleted on their journey. There is no set period over which this may occur. Special attention should be paid in the days following transportation to the vital signs of the horse, with alterations in respiratory rate or effort, or elevations in rectal temperature, requiring prompt veterinary attention.

Opportunities to ease the stress and resulting losses due to transportation include acclimating the horse to trailers or stalls well in advance of the time of transport, progressively altering food offered to match that available during their journey, and ensuring in the initial period after arrival that routine and feedstuffs to as great of a degree as possible do not deviate any more than necessary from that which the horse might expect.

Dr. Morresey began his career in New Zealand as a mixed animal practitioner following graduation from Massey University in 1988. He completed a theriogenology residence at the University of Florida and spent time as part of clinical faculty at the University of Pennsylvania. Areas of interest include reproduction, internal medicine, neonatal medicine, veterinary business and Chinese medicine.

Possible Link Between Selenium and Cribbing In Horses

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Stereotypic behaviors such as weaving, cribbing, and stall-walking occur commonly in high-performance horses as well as many companion horses. In addition to being unsightly, potentially damaging to the barn, and raising welfare concerns, stereotypic behaviors also result in important health issues such as dental disorders, temporohyoid joint damage, poor performance, weight loss, and colic.

“Cribbing is the most troublesome of these compulsive behaviors. It involves grasping a fixed object with the incisor teeth and aspirating air with an audible grunt,” explained Kathleen Crandell, Ph.D., a nutritionist for Kentucky Equine Research.

The exact reason horses crib remains unknown. Some suggest that cribbing horses have unmet dietary or management needs. Others believe that altered biological functions are the culprits, such as decreased antioxidant levels or increased oxidative stress.

Because trace elements such as selenium, zinc, manganese, and copper protect the body from oxidative stress, one research group* recently explored the hypothesis that oxidation status may contribute to cribbing. To test this theory, blood samples were collected from horses during or immediately after an episode of cribbing and when cribbers were resting. Control horses with no known history of cribbing were also tested. Samples were analyzed for various markers of oxidation.

“The most important finding in this study was that serum selenium concentration was significantly lower in cribbing horses than in controls, with the lowest levels measured while horses were actually cribbing,” Crandell said.

Based on these data, the researchers concluded “that alterations in serum selenium, an important component of the antioxidant system, may play a role in the pathophysiology of cribbing behavior in horses, adding further evidence to the theory that cribbing may be related to increased oxidative stress and alterations in essential trace elements.”

Micronutrients imbalances can affect many physiological processes, which is one reason why Kentucky Equine Research nutrition advisors are available for consultation. They can help with feed analysis, recommend ration fortifiers containing vitamins and minerals such as Micro-Max (Gold Pellet in Australia), and antioxidants such as Nano•E, a water-soluble, natural-source of vitamin E, and Preserve PS (Preserve in Australia) to provide natural-source vitamin E, vitamin C, and other antioxidants.

“Management also plays an important part in minimizing stereotypic behaviors. Strategies such as providing environmental enrichment tools, offering free-choice hay or prolonged grazing, and allowing direct visual contact or prolonged turnout time in groups are thought to improve the welfare of affected horses,” Crandell mentioned.

*Omidi, A., R. Jafari, N. Saeed, et al. 2018. Potential role for selenium in the pathophysiology of crib-biting behavior in horses. Journal of Veterinary Behavior 23:10-14.

Article reprinted courtesy of Kentucky Equine Research (KER). Visit equinews.com for the latest in equine nutrition and management, and subscribe to The Weekly Feed to receive these articles directly (equinews.com/newsletters).   

Dr. Getty’s February Tip: Hay Before Grain, or Vice-versa?

Which should be fed first – hay or grain?  If you’re feeding correctly, this issue is truly a moot point because the horse should have access to forage (hay and/or pasture) 24/7 with no gaps. Therefore, when fed concentrates, the horse’s digestive tract should already have hay flowing through it.

If fed starchy cereal grains (oats, corn, barley, etc.) on an empty stomach, the horse will produce even more acid (potentially leading to ulcers) and it will be leave the stomach quickly. When this happens, there is a risk that it will not be fully digested in the small intestine (especially if large amounts are fed), and end up in the hindgut where starch can be fermented by the bacterial population. This can lead to endotoxin-related laminitis.

If hay is present in the stomach first, it creates a physical barrier for the grain to move out of the stomach as quickly. Since starch does not get digested in the stomach, the grain is simply mixed and churned into a semi-liquid mass, which enters the small intestine where it can be digested down to glucose. If there is hay present, fiber mixes with the starch and the whole mass enters the small intestine. Fiber is not digested until it reaches the hind gut, but its presence slows down the digestion of starch, and obstructs the absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, leading to a less dramatic rise in insulin.

One thing to note – there is more water involved when hay is present (from increased drinking and saliva production). This is a good thing since digestion within the small intestine cannot take place without water.

 

Juliet M. Getty, Ph.D. is an independent equine nutritionist with a wide U.S. and international following. Her research-based approach optimizes equine health by aligning physiology and instincts with correct feeding and nutrition practices. Dr. Getty’s goal is to empower the horseperson with the confidence and knowledge to provide the best nutrition for his or her horse’s needs.

Dr. Getty’s fundamental resource book, Feed Your Horse Like a Horse, is available in paperback as well as in hardcover, searchable CD and Kindle versions. All except the Kindle version are available at www.GettyEquineNutrition.com — buy the book there and have it inscribed by the author. Print and Kindle versions are also available at Amazon (www.Amazon.com); find print versions at other online retail bookstores. The seven individual volumes in Dr. Getty’s topic-centered “Spotlight on Equine Nutrition” series are available with special package pricing at her website, and also at Amazon in print and Kindle versions. Dr. Getty’s books make ideal gifts for equestrians!

Find a world of useful information for the horseperson at www.GettyEquineNutrition.com: Sign up for Dr. Getty’s informative, free e-newsletter, Forage for Thought; browse her library of reference articles; search her nutrition forum archives; and purchase recordings of her educational teleseminars and interviews. Find top-quality supplements, feeders, and other equine-related items, at her online Free Shipping Supplement Store[i]. Reach Dr. Getty directly at gettyequinenutrition@gmail.com.

 

[i] http://horsesupplements.gettyequinenutrition.biz

 

Lasix Study Backs Four-Hour Administration Time

Pair of Lasix studies of interest outline results.

A study that has some potential to reshape the timing of Salix administration ahead of racing determined that the current four-hour timeframe is more effective than administering 24 hours out in reducing the severity of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage.

The study, led by Dr. Heather Knych, was one of two studies on Salix (furosemide, commonly referred to as Lasix) with results outlined at the American Association of Equine Practitioners convention in late November. The other study, led by Dr. Warwick Bayly, found some potential for a low dosage of Salix 24 hours out combined with controlled access to water in reducing EIPH in racing.

The Paulick Report first posted a story on the results of both studies Jan. 30.

According to the AAEP’s 2017 Convention Proceedings document, the study by Dr. Knych of the Ken L. Maddy Equine Analytical Chemistry Laboratory looked at the efficacy of administering Lasix 24 hours out, instead of the current four hours out called for in racing’s model rules. The study concluded that administering furosemide four hours before a race was more effective in reducing the severity of EIPH than going to 24 hours out.

The Knych study saw 15 Thoroughbreds administered furosemide either four or 24 hours prior to a five-furlong simulated race. Blood samples were collected before and after the simulated race for determination of furosemide, lactate, hemoglobin, and electrolyte concentrations.

One hour after the race, an endoscopic exam and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed. Horses were assigned an EIPH score based on previously published criteria. The number of red blood cells in in BAL fluid was also determined.

“There was a statistically significant difference in EIPH scores between the four-hour and 24-hour furosemide administrations,” the study determined. The study noted that none of the treatments prevented EIPH in the horses but that reducted red blood cell counts in bronchoalveolar fluid post-race indicated that administering furesomide four hours before a race was the most effective.

According to its introduction, the study came together following anecdotal reports that suggested furosemide administration 24 hours prior to strenuous exercise could be equally effective at decreasing EIPH.

The United States is one of the few countries that allows the raceday administration of Lasix. A study showing efficacy in preventing EIPH at 24 hours or beyond had potential to reshape current raceday policy of administration four hours before the race.

In the study led by Bayly, it was determined that a 0.5 mg/kg administration of furosemide 24 hours before strenuous exercise combined with controlled access to water shows potential for reducing the severity of EIPH.

The study used six horses who underwent treadmill exercise to fatigue after seven different protocols that adjusted the dosage amount of the Lasix and timing of the administration. The study concluded that, “Furosemide, 0.5 mg/kg, combined with controlled access to water, significantly reduced the severity of EIPH,” adding that, “No ill effects were detected in the horses.”

In its AAEP presentation outline, the study noted that “Although the findings were promising, the number of horses used was small. The effects of furosemide on water and ion excretion were evident for 24 hours but did not adversely affect the horses, likely because of increased absorption of wager and ions from the colon.”

In September 2015, Grayson Jockey Club Foundation announced it had launched funding of the two projects. The AAEP also played a prominent role in funding the projects, along with a number of racetracks.

When The Storm Clears, Veterinary Challenges Remain For Horses Stuck In Flood Waters

by | 09.12.2017 |

 

Hurricanes Harvey and Irma flooded two of the largest horse populations in the United States. Texas has a million horses and Florida has a half-million. During the hurricanes, the major threat to these animals was flying debris, but in their aftermath, horses struggled through floodwater to survive.

Floodwater is particularly hazardous because of the level of pollutants it carries. Not only does it harbor bacteria from sewage and other sources, but it also contains harmful chemicals from flooded industrial facilities and breached storage areas on farms.

“I’ve been through a lot of floods,” said Dr. William Moyer, who in 2015 retired from Texas A&M University after a 22-year career as a professor and head of the Large Animal Clinical Sciences Department. He still helps out as a member of TAMU’s Veterinary Emergency Team, which he helped establish during Hurricane Rita in 2005. The unit is the largest and most sophisticated veterinary medical disaster-response team in the country.

Moyer said skin problems are common in horses standing in floodwater. Water leaches natural oils and other protective factors from the skin, making it easier for pollutants to invade. Usually these horses don’t suffer from a specific skin disease with a name, he said, but from exposure to a variety of irritants, chemicals, and bacteria that can have a deleterious effect, depending on the concentration.

“If you look at some of these refineries, there are cattle or horses grazing on the other side of the fence,” he said. “But with the exception of one chemical plant incident during Harvey, I don’t think there have been any toxic spills.”

Moyer said the most important thing is to get the horse somewhere it can dry off and examine it closely to find and treat any open wounds, even small ones. He said to pay particular attention to the pasterns and the backside of the fetlocks, where the feather might hide a wound.

“You might see a little cut that you normally wouldn’t even treat,” he said. “But then two days later the leg is blown up all the way up to the horse’s chest because the contamination is such that just a nick potentially becomes a significant problem.

“Clean it up with soap and water or some kind of effective disinfectant,” he said.

Clean water in disaster areas usually is scarce, but if a safe water supply via a hose is available, Moyer said to bathe the horse in mild detergent, such as Dawn dish soap, to wash off contamination from the floodwater.

If possible, horsemen should try to find out the status of the tetanus vaccination of any horse pulled from floodwater and boost it, if needed.

Hoof wounds

Dick Fanguy is a former president of the American Farrier’s Association who lives near Baton Rouge, La. Though his area was spared from flooding this time around, he took care of many horses during Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, triaging their foot wounds and passing them on to veterinary students for further care.

“These horses are going to come out of that water and their feet are going to be extremely soft,” he said.

Soft hooves are more easily penetrated when they step on foreign objects. The hazards depend on the area where a horse is found. In urban areas, debris from damaged buildings is under the water, whereas horses in rural areas will be exposed to fewer hazards.

“I pulled so many foreign objects out of soles that it was ridiculous,” Fanguy said. “We rescued two horses from New Orleans, and I pulled roofing nails and glass out of their feet. But horses that were in a rural setting just came in with wet, soaked feet. It was just a matter of putting them in a dry stall and letting nature do what nature does.”

Puncture wounds were the priority because of the danger from pollution in the floodwater. For these, Fanguy immediately disinfected the wound with a surgical scrub, debrided it, packed it with a mixture of Epsom salt and povidone iodine (Betadine), and wrapped the foot.

“My experience is that a hoof is a very resilient thing and will come out all right,” he said.

One of the tragedies in the wake of disasters is that many horses (and other animals) are never reunited with their owners because they bear no identification. Moyer, a strong proponent of microchipping, hopes these hurricanes will be a wake-up call for owners to have their animals microchipped.

Louisiana requires all horses to be microchipped. In the aftermath of Katrina and Rita, all but one of 364 recovered horses were able to be reunited with their owners using microchip identification.

What Is Restricted Feeding?

On one level, it’s exactly what it sounds like – restricting what you feed your horse. The devil is in the details though.  Exactly what is being restricted, why, how much?

Some people use restricted feeding and slow feeding synonymously. In that case, the horse is restricted in how fast they can eat.  This may or may not end up also reducing how much they eat. Some horses become very adept at eating from small hole nets or slow feeders. Others simply spend more time eating. Either way they can end up eating as much as they did before.

In most cases restricted feeding refers to limiting how much the horse is given to eat. That may mean just cutting back on grain or pasture time but usually means the horse’s daily calorie intake from all sources is controlled to maintain a healthy weight. Situations where this is necessary include overweight horses needing to trim down, insulin-resistant horses that will eat too much, and horses on forced stall rest for an injury.

Contrary to what you may have heard, restricting caloric intake is not the most stressful thing you can do to your horse. It is not cruel and will not cause health problems when done properly. While some advocate extreme calorie restriction, especially when trying to get weight off a horse, this really isn’t necessary.

A grass hay with under 10% sugar (ESC) and starch combined, protein 9+% can usually be fed at a rate of 1.5% of current body weight or 2% of ideal body weight, whichever is larger, to achieve the desired weight.  Use a slow feeding set up and break this up into multiple feedings. If the horse is able to be regularly exercised they can eat even more.

It’s worth mentioning here that these guidelines also work for insulin-resistant horses most of the time. It’s not so much that they gain weight easily but rather that they eat too much. When a horse is not losing weight at the above level of feeding a calorie count using the actual digestible energy from the hay analysis usually reveals the hay has higher than average calorie density. There are some individuals that need more stringent restrictions but they are the exception rather than the rule.

Don’t worry about the gut being “empty” if the horse is not constantly eating. It takes the stomach a bare minimum of 2 hours to empty, usually much longer. Running out of hay for a couple hours also does not guarantee stomach pain, “stress” or ulcer formation.

As for feeding the organisms in the hind gut, food takes about 2 days to finish traversing the hind gut. It is not true the horse’s cecum won’t empty without a constant flow of food to push the contents along. Just like everywhere else in the intestinal tract, food is mixed and propelled along by muscular contractions, which occur at set intervals. The time food spends in the cecum depends on particle size and ranges from 2 to 48 hours (Argenzio 1974).

Whether it’s a human, a horse or the family dog or cat, weight control still boils down to calories in versus calories out. Horses that are overweight or have sharply curtailed activity need to have their calories counted.  Horses that overeat for medical or temperament reasons also need to have calories restricted. Restricting calories to those needed to maintain a normal weight is not extreme. It’s really that simple.

The ECIR Group has hundreds of case histories to prove it. Join us this October in Tucson, AZ for the 2017 NO Laminitis! Conference to learn more. https://www.nolaminitis.org/

 

About ECIR Group Inc

Started in 1999, the ECIR Group is the largest field-trial database for PPID and IR in the world and provides the latest research, diagnosis, and treatment information, in addition to dietary recommendations for horses with these conditions. Even universities do not and cannot compile and follow long term as many in-depth case histories of PPID/IR horses as the ECIR Group.

 

In 2013 the Equine Cushing’s and Insulin Resistance Group Inc., an Arizona nonprofit corporation, was approved as a 501(c)3 public charity. Tax-deductible contributions and grants support ongoing research, education, and awareness of Equine Cushing’s Disease/PPID and Insulin Resistance.

 

THE MISSION of the ECIR Group Inc. is to improve the welfare of equines with metabolic disorders via a unique interface between basic research and real-life clinical experience. Prevention of laminitis is the ultimate goal. The ECIR Group serves the scientific community, practicing clinicians, and owners by focusing on investigations most likely to quickly, immediately, and significantly benefit the welfare of the horse.

 

Feeding Foals After Weaning

Weanling horses require additional support and feeding adjustments as they grow.

Shoreview, Minn. [August 11, 2017] – As summer ends and your foal continues to grow and gain independence, it’s time to think about the nutrition requirements of your weanling horse. This can be a stressful time, both emotionally and nutritionally. Keep these tips in mind to ensure a smooth transition and continued healthy growth through weaning.

 

When to Wean a Foal

“If the weanling horse is one you’ve raised since birth, you have a lot of control over how well-prepared your baby is for weaning,” says Anna Pesta, Ph.D., equine nutritionist with Purina Animal Nutrition. “Foals will show interest in feeds early on and, by about two months of age, their mother’s milk will no longer supply all the nutrients needed for optimum growth.”

 

To support smooth, steady growth, suckling foals should be offered one pound of a properly-formulated foal feed per month of age per day, advises Pesta. For example, a 3-month-old would ideally be eating about three pounds of feed per day, in addition to milk and free-choice hay or pasture.

 

A weanling horse already accustomed to eating an adequate amount of dry feed will transition to life without mom much easier and maintain nutrient intake at a level to sustain optimum growth. Knowing how to eat and having a safe friend or buddy to keep them company after weaning helps foals adjust to their new independence.

 

Best Feed for Weanling Horses

When weaning horses, it’s important to offer weanlings a high-quality feedspecifically formulated for foals.

 

“Young, growing horses have different requirements for protein, vitamins and minerals than adult horses,” says Pesta.

 

To ensure correct muscle, bone and tendon development, look for feeds with a proper balance of high-quality proteins, amino acids, calories, calcium and phosphorus.

 

Feeds formulated for adults will not provide the necessary nutrients for your baby to fulfill their genetic potential and may cause deficiencies and increase the risk of growth abnormalities. Additionally, an economy-type feed with a seemingly adequate amount of crude protein (14-16 percent) will likely not supply sources of protein that are easily digestible or provide the correct ratios of amino acids. Now is not the time to skimp on nutrients!

 

Is Your Foal Feed Working? Track Your Weanling’s Progress!

Steady, consistent growth through weaning and to maturity can influence lifelong soundness. Periodically weigh your foal on a scale or properly use a weight tape to get an approximate weight, as well as a height stick to measure wither and hip height, advises Pesta.

 

“Generally, foals should reach approximately 50 percent of their mature weight and 80 percent of their mature height by six months old,” says Pesta.

 

Plotting your weanling horse’s height and weight over time should show a smooth, steady growth curve with no obvious peaks or valleys.

 

Monitor and Adjust

“Prior to weaning, the foal is growing at a rapid rate of about 2-2.5 pounds per day,” says Pesta.

 

This growth gradually slows after the foal becomes a weanling—to about one pound per day as they approach 12 months of age.

 

“The ability of the weanling’s digestive system to digest forages also increases post-weaning, as does their daily forage intake,” adds Pesta. “Therefore, the proportion of the diet as feed may not continue to increase, and may actually decrease if forage quality is excellent.”

 

After choosing a foal feed, feed at least the minimum recommended amount to provide adequate amino acids, vitamins and minerals. Routine evaluation of body fat cover, especially the amount of fat covering the rib area, will help determine when adjustments in feeding rates should be considered.

 

Weanling horses are growing to their genetic potential when they are being fed a well-balanced

diet in amounts to maintain slight cover so ribs aren’t seen but are easily felt.

 

For more tips on feeding your foal, visit purinamills.com/horse-feed.

 

Purina Animal Nutrition LLC (www.purinamills.com) is a national organization serving producers, animal owners and their families through more than 4,700 local cooperatives, independent dealers and other large retailers throughout the United States. Driven to unlock the greatest potential in every animal, the company is an industry-leading innovator offering a valued portfolio of complete feeds, supplements, premixes, ingredients and specialty technologies for the livestock and lifestyle animal markets. Purina Animal Nutrition LLC is headquartered in Shoreview, Minn. and a wholly owned subsidiary of Land O’Lakes, Inc.

How Old Is ‘Old’ For A Thoroughbred?

by | 07.06.2017 | 12:53pm

Gulch enjoying retirement at Old Friends Farm

Every year brings a handful of death announcements as stallions and broodmares succumb to “the infirmities of old age.” Whether the horse in question was in their early or late twenties, we usually get questions – doesn’t say, 25 years old sound young for a horse? And what exactly are the “infirmities of old age”?

Just as for people, there’s no hard and fast answer to the question of how long a horse can be expected to live. Generally speaking, ponies and miniature horses can live significantly longer than the average riding horse, and it’s not uncommon for them to reach their early or mid-thirties. Riding horses like Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses begin to show their age in their late teens or early twenties, though may live well beyond that. The oldest horse in the history books, according to The Horse magazine, was Old Billy, a barge horse born in 1760 who lived to be 62. Old Billy is the exception rather than the rule, with most riding horses living to be between 20 and 30. Draft breeds, much like large dog breeds, usually have a slightly shorter lifespan due to their size.

“I figure once they get to be about thirty, every day is a gift,” said Dr. Bryan Waldridge of Park Equine Hospital.

Waldridge treats the residents of Old Friends in Georgetown, Ky., which always includes some number of geriatric Thoroughbreds. Unsurprisingly, Waldridge said, a horse’s life expectancy also has a lot to do with their health history. Horses coming off the racetrack with more wear-and-tear injuries may see those injuries flare into problematic arthritis more quickly and viciously than those that retired sound. Past illness can also leave a horse susceptible to complications later; a horse that has recovered from kidney disease may be more vulnerable years later to a recurrence, as is true for colic. There are also individual differences; some horses are more sensitive than others to environmental changes that could cause colic.

 

 

Waldridge also believes genetics and attitude have something to do with it.

“I think some people just genetically live longer and I think it’s true in horses,” said Waldridge. “Gulch looked like he was going to live forever until he got cancer and then it was over in no time. He was one of the oldest, toughest horses I ever saw.”

Gulch, a longtime resident of Old Friends, was euthanized in 2016 at the age of 32.

As with people, the death of an older horse can be the sum of one or more gradually worsening problems, rather than one, acute bout of illness (with the obvious exception of colic), hence the vague phrase “the infirmities of old age.” According to a study of deceased horses 15 years old and up from the University of Kentucky’s Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, the causes of death for most geriatric horses were disorders of the digestive system and those of the cardiovascular system. About half the cardiovascular cases were caused by a uterine artery rupture, which is considered one of the possible complications for broodmares 15 years of age and up. Most digestive issues likely manifested as colic, which is still the most common cause of death for all horses.

Fifteen years old is also recognized as the benchmark for increased risk of a certain type of intestinal lipoma, a fatty tumor, that can cause fatal colic. Colic generally gets more common with age, and risks associated with anesthesia become more serious as a horse ages, so surgeons are less inclined to operate on colic cases in their late teens and early twenties.

Cardiovascular issues become more common because with time, walls of the heart valves become thickened and the valves can sometimes fail to close properly, allowing blood to leak through the valves, which makes the heart work harder. Waldridge sees a fair number of deaths from congestive heart failure for this reason in older horses.

Aging grays are also at increased risk for skin cancer. It’s fairly common for gray horses to develop tumors on their faces, necks, or around the rectum. Most of those tumors are not problematic on their own but can pose challenges if they begin interfering with an organ’s function.

“Unlike humans and dogs, they don’t tend to be malignant in horses but where they are, they tend to cause trouble and they really like the hind end, so a horse can’t pass manure,” said Waldridge. “I’ve seen them get so big the horse couldn’t raise their tail to pass manure.”

A horse’s teeth, which are constantly erupting through their gums throughout their lives, may also begin to wear down or fall out as they age, making it more cumbersome to chew tough feedstuffs like dry hay or grain. Additionally, older horses struggle to maintain weight during periods of extreme cold, even when fed appropriate diets.

A horse with any level of athletic function is at risk for developing arthritis as they age, and this can progress to the point it interferes with a horse’s day-to-day function, especially if the horse is already dealing with other illnesses.

All this means owners and managers often must weigh an older horse’s “infirmities” with his quality of life.

“My definition that I always tell people is that when they can’t walk around and eat grass pain-free anymore, then to me, it’s time to think about euthanasia. If they can walk around and eat grass all right, they’re pretty happy,” said Waldridge, who emphasized a horse that lives to 23 is not necessarily receiving inferior care to one that lives to 30. “I think you can’t do anything about genetics. If they’ve had some serious problem in their past, it may ding them somewhere and make them where if they get an injury or illness in the same body system, it’ll hit them harder. It’s genetics and what’s happened to them their whole life leading up to that point, it doesn’t mean anyone’s done anything wrong.”

Nail-Free Shoe Options For Thoroughbreds: Glue-Ons Prevail

by | 06.29.2017 | 9:49am

 

 

If you follow any fellow horse lovers on social media (and even if you don’t), chances are you’ve seen a photo of these nail-free, iron-free, colorful clip-on horseshoes sometime in the past several months. Photos of the Megasus Horserunners, as the shoes are called, have gotten a lot of attention on Facebook due to their bright colors and claims of a gentler, more supportive shoeing option for horses.

The Horserunners, expected to be available for sale later this year, are clip-on shoes with bottoms designed similar to human running shoes. The shoes are meant to be shock-absorbing and easily removed for riders who want to work their horses in shoes but turn them out barefoot. According to the company’s website, Horserunners are applied by placing two strips of Mega Lock tape onto the foot’s outside wall and adhering the shoe’s clips onto the tape strips.

So, will we soon see Thoroughbreds with equine running shoes color coordinated to their silks?

Pat Broadus, owner of Broadus Brothers Horseshoeing in Central Kentucky, has his doubts. A galloping Thoroughbred exerts roughly 30,000 pounds of pressure per square inch in his feet. Broadus isn’t convinced, from what he has seen of the Horserunners, the velcro-like tape combined with the shoe base would provide the right combination of adherence, traction, and slide needed to the hoof in that high-pressure situation.

 

“I’ve never seen a pair put on,” said Broadus, who had concerns about the tape used to adhere the clips. “It’s like Velcro. You know with Velcro, as soon as it gets dirty, it won’t stick anymore.”

 

Indeed, the target audience for Horserunners seems to be trail and casual riders, although initial tests suggests the clip-ons can withstand the force of jumping.

While the act of using nails to affix shoes is painless to the horse when done correctly, nails can pose problems. Horses with thin hoof walls can have shoes loosen, and nails can predispose the wall to cracks, chips or tears if the horse is stomping flies or steps on the edge of a loose shoe and pulls it the wrong way. Some horses, especially Thoroughbreds with thin walls, struggle to keep nailed-on shoes affixed.

If not clip-ons, what are the best options for racehorses needing a break from nails?

Broadus said glue-on shoes remain the standard for Thoroughbreds with special shoeing needs. They were initially found primarily in hospital settings but have become much more mainstream in the past few years.

“It used to be you’d go in a barn and it was taboo for them to have glue-ons, and now you’ll have three out of 20 with glue-ons on,” he said.

Broadus, who co-owns glue-on shoe company Hanton Horseshoes, says people have gained a better understanding of how to glue shoes to horses’ feet.

“When glue-ons first came around, everybody thought you needed a half a bucket of glue to glue a horse on,” he said. “I think we were way overkilling it and putting glue in places that didn’t need glue, and I put myself in that group. It’s the human mindset of, ‘More is better.’ It only sticks to so much. The more you put on, the more chance you have of part of it failing.”

Hanton’s shoes are a modified type of Victory Racing Plates with clips that rest against the outside of the hoof wall, and it is these that are glued on. More traditional glue-ons require a small amount of glue at the edge of the foot and are easy to remove as the hoof grows out, since the portion with the glue is often the part that would be trimmed off anyway.

Despite his involvement in the glue-on shoe business, Broadus said he only has about four horses actively wearing glue-ons across a practice with five farriers.

“I glue to get horses out of glue-ons, I do not put them on planning to leave them on for their entire life. That being said, I have done it when I’ve had a bad situation on certain horses,” he said. “A lot of times, I get a call to come put glue-ons on a horse and you’re not putting nails in so the feet grow out and they look beautiful, then they’re scared to go back to [nails].”

Broadus has one client whose top-level driving prospect had to be retired when he pulled a shoe, stepped on the nail, and developed an infection that spread to his ankle. She keeps her current driving horse in glue-ons for peace of mind, even though she acknowledges it’s unlikely such an accident would happen again.

The downside of glue-ons is they’re more expensive; some can run $75 to $80 a pair, a cost that gets passed onto the client. A pair of glue-ons cannot be reset after one use, which contributes to the bill, too.

Another option Broadus sees for Thoroughbreds needing a break from traditional shoes: hoof boots. Broadus has had good luck rehabilitating a horse on his farm with hoof boots for about seven months. Hoof boots have become better-fitted to horses’ feet in the past several years and have been a popular option among endurance riders negotiating significant mileage at a slow speed over tough terrain. He hasn’t had a request to try hoof boots from one of his racing clients yet, but he wouldn’t be surprised if it comes soon.

“I’m not so sure that that type of boot wouldn’t have its place at the racetrack at some point,” he said. “I don’t know that a horse would run in them because of the traction on the bottom. But I could see a horse come up with a bruised foot or something, and you put that on for a few days while you treat it. I could see where it would be a lot of protection. They’ve improved them so much.”

Pasture, for the Insulin Resistant Horse?

By Juliet M. Getty, Ph.D.

 

When is pasture safer for the insulin resistant (IR) horse – late afternoon or early morning? Google this question, ask your vet, or talk to a friend and you will get both answers!  How frustrating! It’s time we cleared this up.

Grass is a living organism and requires NSC (non-structural carbohydrates) for energy in order to grow. NSC is a measure of sugars, starch, and fructans and is produced through the process of photosynthesis when the plant is exposed to sunlight.

In general, the following are true: 

  • Grasses accumulate NSC as the day progresses, making them highly concentrated in NSC by the late afternoon.
  • Once the sun sets, grasses will metabolize NSC for energy, making them lowest in concentration in the early morning hours.

This pattern can be disrupted if the night temperatures remain below 40 degrees F (4 degrees C). When exposed to cold, grasses will hold on to NSC and not relinquish it during the night, making morning grazing less safe for the IR horse.

Other factors that increase NSC:

  • Stressors, such as overgrazing, drought, and too much rain
  • Mowing too short – limit mowing height to no less than 5 inches
  • Letting grasses go to seed
  • Fertilization stimulates growth

 

Warm season vs cool season grasses

Warm and cool season grasses behave differently during prolonged intense heat and sunlight[i]. Warm-season grasses (e.g., Coastal Bermuda and Teff) will naturally thrive during very hot, sunny days and accumulate substantial amounts of NSC by day’s end. However, cool-season grasses (e.g., timothy, brome, orchard, crested wheat grass, rye, fescue, as well as alfalfa) will actually be lower in NSC during periods of prolonged heat and sunlight, as long as the grass is adequately watered. This apparent contradiction occurs because heat and light stimulate the cool season plant’s enzymes that burn off NSC.

 

What about cloudy days? 

Here again, there is a difference between warm and cool season grasses. Photosynthesis still takes place during cloudy days. However, clouds usually cool down the temperature. This can potentially decrease NSC in warm weather grasses, but cool season grasses respond to cooler, more moderate temperatures with a higher NSC content.

 

It is a bit of an art form

You have to know your grasses. You can’t be passive about it. The best way to think about the NSC content in your pasture is to first know the type grass you have, which will give you an idea of what climates it prefers. Then, examine the amount of stress the grass is enduring. Stress will cause all grasses to be higher in NSC.

 

The best approach is to test your pasture

 It’s true that testing only provides a snapshot since grasses are living organisms and change from day to day. But you can get a good idea of how your grass is performing by testing early and late in the season.[ii]When testing your pasture:

  • Note the weather conditions on the day before you test
  • Choose a sunny day to take your samples
  • Take an early morning sample and a late afternoon sample and note the weather conditions

 

Interpreting the test results

 There are three measurements to consider:

1)      ESC (ethanol soluble carbohydrates): simple sugars

2)      WSC (water soluble carbohydrates): simple sugars plus fructans (long chains of fructose molecules)

3)      Starch: long chains of glucose molecules

Add ESC + Starch. You want this sum to be less than 11% (on a dry matter basis) to be considered safe for the IR horse. This is because ESC and starch digestion will raise blood glucose and cause a rise in insulin secretion from the pancreas. Elevated blood insulin is the basis for many laminitis cases.

NSC = WSC + Starch. If this number exceeds 13% (on a dry matter basis) and the ESC + Starch sum is below 11%, it tells you that the fructan level is elevated. Fructans do not significantly raise blood insulin and are generally not a concern. However, excessive fructan intake can possibly lead to cecal acidosis and endotoxin-related laminitis as a result of bacterial fermentation in the hindgut.[iii] There is a need for further, in-depth study since a dangerous level has not been established and studies using fructans have inconsistent results.[iv]

Fructans and starches vary according to the type of grasses. Cool season grasses and alfalfa tend to be higher in fructans, while warm season grasses accumulate starch. The sugar content of all grasses, however, can vary dramatically mainly based on environmental factors.

 

Bottom line

Pasture grazing is the best way to keep your horse healthy. Grasses are not only highly nutritious, but grazing supports both physical and mental health. Get to know your grasses and periodically have them analyzed to offer your horses grazing opportunities at the most opportune times and conditions.

 

This article updates and expands information in one of Dr. Getty’s previous Tips of the Month. Permission to reprint this article is granted, provided attribution is given to Juliet M. Getty, Ph.D. No editorial changes may be made without her permission. Dr. Getty appreciates being notified of any publication.

 

Juliet M. Getty, Ph.D. is an independent equine nutritionist with a wide U.S. and international following. Her research-based approach optimizes equine health by aligning physiology and instincts with correct feeding and nutrition practices. Dr. Getty’s goal is to empower the horseperson with the confidence and knowledge to provide the best nutrition for his or her horse’s needs.

 

Dr. Getty’s fundamental resource book, Feed Your Horse Like a Horse, is now in paperback as well as in hardcover, searchable CD and Kindle versions. All except the Kindle version are available at www.GettyEquineNutrition.com — buy the book there and have it inscribed by the author. Print and Kindle versions are also available at Amazon (www.Amazon.com); find print versions at other online retail bookstores. The seven individual volumes in Dr. Getty’s topic-centered “Spotlight on Equine Nutrition”series are available with special package pricing at her website, and also at Amazon in print and Kindle versions. Dr. Getty’s books make ideal gifts for equestrians!

 

Find a world of useful information for the horseperson at www.GettyEquineNutrition.com: Sign up for Dr. Getty’s informative, free e-newsletter, Forage for Thought; browse her library of reference articles; search her nutrition forum archives; and purchase recordings of her educational teleseminars. Find top-quality supplements, feeders, and other equine-related items, at her online Free Shipping Supplement Store[v]. Reach Dr. Getty directly at gettyequinenutrition@gmail.com.

 

 

[i] Watts, K., 2008. The influence of solar radiation and temperature on the diurnal fluctuation of NSC in grass. Rocky Mountain Research & Consulting, Inc. www.safergrass.org

[ii] Equi-Analytical Labs offers instructions on how to test your pasture. www.equi-analytical.com

[iii] Johnson, R.J., Rivard, C., Lanaspa, M.A., Otabachian-Smith, S., et. al., 2013. Fructokinase, fructans, intestinal permeability, and metabolic syndrome: An equine connection? Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 33(2), 120-126.

[iv] Crawford, C., Sepulveda, M.F., Elliott, J., Harris, P.A., and Bailey, S.R., 2017. Dietary fructan carbohydrate increases amine production in the equine large intestine: Implications for pasture-associated laminitis. Journal of Animal Science, 85, 2949-2958.

[v] http://horsesupplements.gettyequinenutrition.biz

 

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